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Friday, September 24, 2010

AJAX – Asynchronous Java Script and XML

Abstract. AJAX – Asynchronous Java Script and XML – is a new im-plementation of established web development technologies to gain inter-activity between users and servers through multiple client sided serverconnections in the background. It allows to integrate web applications inbrowsers, as a consequence the borders to desktop applications are disap-pearing. AJAX is a kind of framework that leads Web programming intothe direction of Web 2.0, the new generation of using and developing theinternet. This paper discusses AJAX, Web 2.0 and gives an idea aboutthe principles of the asynchronous Java Script and XML technology byimplementing examples and evaluating the concepts. The main topic in this paper is the evaluation and discussion of AJAX – asyn-chronous Java Script and XML. Technical aspects are described and an overviewabout the main concepts is given. This paper also discusses Web 2.0 and the his-tory of Web Services, shows examples and gives an idea about the principles ofthe asynchronous Java Script and XML technology by implementing examplesand evaluating the concepts. The first chapter will give a short common intro-duction to Web programming. After this introduction details about AJAX aredescribed in chapter 2. Further details and more technical aspects are evaluatedin chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with a practical part, in which also source codeexamples are implemented. In chapter 5 a review is given and an outlook for thefuture is discussed.1.1 History of Web ServicesSimilar to almost every IT – sector also in the part of Web services and program-ming the development und innovation of technologies in the last few decades wasrisen in a very significal way. As in 1989 Tim Berners Lee invented the Hyper-text Markup Language, nobody knew what kind of rapid development it wouldlead to. In the first years HTML was only used for static websites and for layoutpurposes. But HTML is still, like nearly twenty years ago, also nowadays (todaythe XHTML 2.0 standard is common) hierarchically structured and assembledby so called tags. This is a very important aspect for the DOM – DocumentObject Model [15], which will be evaluated later in detail.The more sites web designers and web programmers implemented, the morethe demand for dynamic web sites increased. In 1998 first implementations ofDynamic HTML were published technically feasible with Java Script. Thesewere the first foreriders of the new AJAX framework, which generally only usesexisting technologies. But not everyone was affected with that hype, one of theproblems was the Netscape Microsoft browser war. While Netscape invented theJavaScript object based language, Microsoft countered with its Jscript which hadsimilar functionalities but for web programmers there were too many problemswith compatibility. Also nowadays it is not easy to create Java Script applica-tions compatible for every browser. While Microsoft uses the Active X supportin its Internet Explorer, the Gecko browsers (Mozilla, Firefox, etc.) are not com-pletely compatible to them.Later websites gained interactivity and dynamic actions through Java appletsand Flash applications which all use the common browser-server request: a useropens a browser, sends a request to a server, the server handles the request andgives it back to the browser where the user waits for the answer. With the helpof AJAX a lot of these connections can be realized simultaneously while the useris working.

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